The Fresh produce is more doubt prone to the disease organisms because of the increase in the respiration rate after the harvesting. The respiration of the fresh fruits and vegetables can be reduced and deducted by various number of preservation techniques. The Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology is also largely used for the minimally processed fruits and vegetables including the fresh, “ready-to-use” prepared vegetables. The Extensive research has been done in this thorough research area for many decades to come. The Oxygen, CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and N2 (nitrogen), are most often used in three Modified Atmosphere Packaging. The recommended percentage of the O2 (Oxygen) in a modified atmosphere for the fruits and vegetables are for both safety and quality falls between the- 1 and 5%. Although three other gases such as the nitrous and nitric oxides, ethylene, Sulphur dioxide, chlorine and the ozone and propylene oxide have also been investigated, although they have not been applied commercially due to the reasons like- safety, regulatory and the cost considerations. The Successful control of both the product respiration and ethylene production and the perception by Pogoed Atmosphere Packaging can result in a fruit or vegetable product of the high organoleptic quality. However, control of these processes is also dependent on temperature control.
The extensive Design of the active and modified atmosphere for the packaging of vegetables was studied by the developing a mathematical model predicting as the – gas changes and the study was based on the following independently evaluated parameters like- vegetable respiration rate, film permeability and the oxygen absorption kinetic of the absorber. A step-by-step chronological model validation was also performed on a tomatoes and low-density polyethylene pouch, also the commercial iron-based scavenger system at the 20 °C. Without the full optimization, the model fit experimental data with the root mean square error
Unlike most of the food products, fresh fruits and the vegetables continue to ‘breathe’ or respire after they have been fully harvested. This long process consumes the oxygen and produces the (CO2) carbon dioxide and water vapor altogether. The main aim is to keep these packaged products fresh for as long as possible, just to reduce the respiration rate without any harm to the quality of the product – its texture, taste and appearance. Generally, the rate of the respiration can be reduced by keeping the temperature low, or by having lower levels of oxygen in the packaging atmosphere and also the increased levels of carbon dioxide. But, things are not straightforward or that through the process. For example if there is too little of oxygen in the packaging atmosphere of these packaged fruits and vegetables, then a process called anaerobic respiration will kick in and spread. This produces the unwanted tastes and also the odors in the product and will cause the food to deteriorate further. Furthermore, the excessively high carbon dioxide can also damage some varieties of the particular product.
The packaging material used for the fruit and vegetables is also especially crucial and in particular how breathable or permeable the material is of the particular product. If the products are sealed in an airtight package then the oxygen will soon become depleted and become undesirable anaerobic conditions could develop in that. On the other hand, if the material is too porous, then the modified atmosphere will escape and no benefit will be derived from that.